This activity was produced as a collaboration between HHMI BioInteractive and Vulcan Productions.


Bridget Conneely, HHMI

Scientific Advisors

Frank Pope, PhD, and Jake Wall, PhD, Save the Elephants; James Deutsch, PhD, Vulcan Productions; Joyce Poole, PhD, Elephant Voices; Peter Wrege, PhD, Cornell University; Fiona Massels, PhD, Wildlife Conservation Society

Additional Writing and Editing

Satoshi Amagai, PhD, and Mark Nielsen, PhD, HHMI


Aline Waguespack, PhD


Ryan Reardon, Jefferson County International Baccalaureate School; Takisha Reece, Sandy Spring Friends School; Amy Fassler, Marshfield High School


Bridget Conneely, HHMI


Fabian de Kok-Mercado, HHMI


Carla Rebai and Emre Izat, Off the Fence Productions

Footage Courtesy of Vulcan Productions

Elephant Voices

Stock Footage

BBC Motion Gallery/Getty Images

AP Archive

Karl Ammann (

Gorongosa Media Project Archive

Sun Destinations

Tracking data from “Save the Elephants”

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Elephant Listening Project

Andrea Turkalo

Photos & Diagrams

Elephants without Borders

Elephant Listening Project

Thompson, M.E., Schwager, S.J., Payne, K.B. and Turkalo, A. (2009). Acoustic estimation of wildlife abundance: methodology for vocal mammals in forested habitats. African Journal of Ecology. 48: 654-661.

Thompson, M.E., Schwager, S.J., and Payne, K.B. (2009). Heard but not seen: an acoustic survey of the African forest elephant. African Journal of Ecology. 48: 224-231.

David Nzouango, WCS Cameroon

Elephant, MHGALLERY as supplied by iStock/Thinkstock

Thirsty Elephant Herd 1, Andrew Miller as supplied by Hemera/Thinkstock

African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana), Digital Vision as supplied by Digital Vision/Thinkstock


2007 elephant range: IUCN/SSC African Elephant Specialist Group. 2008.
Loxodonta africana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4.

Aerial survey and current trends: The Great Elephant Census

Dung Transects survey areas reproduced based on: Maisels F., Strindberg, S., Blake, S., Wittemyer, G., Hart, J., et al. (2013). Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa. 2013, PLoS ONE. 8(3): e59469. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.

1979 elephant range reproduced based on: Douglas-Hamilton, I. (1979). The African elephant action plan. IUCN/WWF/NYZS Elephant Survey and Conservation Programme. Final report to US Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN, Nairobi.

Web editor

Chris Vargas, HHMI

Executive Producer

Dennis Liu, PhD, HHMI

Design and Development

kapow, inc.