Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning and Regeneration

Lecture 4 – Stem Cells and the End of Aging

by Nadia Rosenthal, PhD

  1.  1.  Start of Lecture 4
  2.  2.  Welcome by HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech
  3.  3.  Dr. Nadia Rosenthal on teaching
  4.  4.  Physiological characteristics of aging
  5.  5.  The stem cell pool and ability to regenerate tissue
  6.  6.  Three ways stem cells could affect aging
  7.  7.  Capacity to rebuild muscle decreases with age
  8.  8.  Older muscle has fewer satellite cells
  9.  9.  Satellite cells from aging muscle are still potent
  10. 10.  Aging reduces satellite cell signaling
  11. 11.  The Notch-Delta molecular signaling pathway
  12. 12.  Notch-Delta response differs in young and old muscle
  13. 13.  Changing Notch levels affects muscle repair
  14. 14.  Does the stem cell's environment change during aging?
  15. 15.  Response of old mouse stem cells to young mouse environment
  16. 16.  Young-old "pairing" improves repairing ability of old muscle
  17. 17.  Serum factors can activate Notch pathway in old cells
  18. 18.  Old muscle revival is due to young molecules, not young cells
  19. 19.  Summary of factors involved in aging and stem cell response
  20. 20.  Q&A: How do muscle cells "know" that they are injured?
  21. 21.  Q&A: High regeneration tissues have medium stem cell numbers?
  22. 22.  Q&A: Old stem cells revert if young environment is removed?
  23. 23.  Q&A: In rapid aging diseases, do stem cells appear old or young?
  24. 24.  Can we improve the heart's ability to regenerate?
  25. 25.  Animation: Heart structure and function
  26. 26.  Heart function is crucial, but the heart is a poor regenerator
  27. 27.  Demo: Cause and effect of a heart attack
  28. 28.  After a heart attack, cardiac tissue is lost
  29. 29.  Other organisms can regenerate heart muscle
  30. 30.  Animation: Zebrafish heart regeneration
  31. 31.  Potential cell therapy for heart failure
  32. 32.  Evidence that the heart can incorporate circulating cells
  33. 33.  Using bone marrow stem cells to rebuild heart tissue
  34. 34.  In recent trial, stem cell heart therapy had mixed results
  35. 35.  Using an IGF-1 mouse to see if heart muscle can make new cells
  36. 36.  Damage to cardiac tissue heals in the IGF-1 mouse
  37. 37.  Cellular basis of IGF-1's role in cardiac tissue regeneration
  38. 38.  IGF-1 animals express signaling factors that aid in regrowth
  39. 39.  Tβ4 found to reduce scarring in heart damage
  40. 40.  Tβ4 and FGF create a response similar to zebrafish regeneration
  41. 41.  Stem cells for potential heart repair
  42. 42.  Acknowledgements
  43. 43.  Q&A: Are blood types a factor in heart transplants?
  44. 44.  Dr. Thomas Cech announces speakers for next Holiday Lectures

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