Stickleback Evolution Lab Related Resources

Glossary | Resources | Credits

Short Film

The Making of the Fittest: Evolving Switches, Evolving Bodies


Howard Hughes Medical Institute 2005 Holiday Lecture Series
Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads


Stickleback Fossil Primer

Stickleback Environment

Fossil Record of Stickleback Evolution

Stickleback Fish on Jeopardy!

Stratigraphic Principles


Fossil Record of Stickleback Evolution

Gene Switch

Pitx1 Expression

Other Online Resources

Dr. Michael A. Bell Lab Website

Dr. David Kingsley Lab Website


Modern Stickleback Populations

Bell, M. A., Ortí, G., Walker, J. A., and Koenings, J. P. 1993. Evolution of pelvic reduction in threespine stickleback fish: a test of competing hypotheses. Evolution 47:906-914.

Bell, M. A., and Ortí, G. 1994. Pelvic reduction in threespine stickleback from Cook Inlet lakes: geographical distribution and intrapopulation variation. Copeia 2:314-325.

Bell, M. A., Khalef, V., and Travis, M. P. 2007. Directional asymmetry of pelvic vestiges in threespine stickleback. J. Exp. Zool. 308B:189-199.

Fossil Stickleback

Bell, M. A. Palaeobiology and evolution of threespine stickleback (Chapter 15; p. 438-471). In The Evolutionary Biology of the Threespine Stickleback, edited by Michael A. Bell and Susan A. Foster. Oxford University Press, 1994.


Shapiro, M. D., et al. 2004. Genetics and developmental basis of evolutionary pelvic reduction in threespine sticklebacks. Nature 428:717-723.

Chan, Y. F., et al. 2010. Adaptive evolution of pelvic reduction in sticklebacks by recurrent deletion of a Pitx1 enhancer. Science 327:302-305.