List at least three examples of ways in which animals of the same species communicate with one another.
In a few sentences, describe how you would design an experiment to determine whether elephants can detect and interpret the calls of other elephants through the ground.
What do you conclude from these results?
So far, O’Connell tested the elephants’ response to a sound traveling above the ground. Which other condition is she likely to test next as part of her experiment?
Predict what will happen when the shaker is turned on if elephants communicate using only sound traveling through the air and not the ground.
Which of the following graphs best describes the results of the experiment?
Justify your answer in two or three sentences.
What do you conclude from the results of this experiment?
What is a plausible explanation for why elephants responded differently to ground and air signals?
How could you test the hypothesis that elephants interpreted the ground signal as being farther away than the air signal?
Communication requires several components:
Provide an example of each of these components from the study.