Medicine in the Genomic Era

Lecture 4 – From Cancer Genomics to Cancer Drugs

by Charles L. Sawyers, MD

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  1.  1.  Start of Lecture Four
  2.  2.  Video: DNA sequencing technology improves cancer treatment
  3.  3.  Cancer genomics: Mapping all the mutations in cancer cells
  4.  4.  Cancer mutations include substitutions, INDELS, and translocations
  5.  5.  Cancer genome profiling requires collaboration and data sharing
  6.  6.  Only a few mutations may be needed to develop cancer
  7.  7.  Smoking and UV radiation dramatically increase mutation rate
  8.  8.  Analysis of cancer genome data identifies cancer-causing genes
  9.  9.  To date, 140 genes have been found to be involved in cancer
  10. 10.  Half of "cancer genes" affect cell cycle, cell growth, and survival
  11. 11.  Mutations in DNA-proofreading genes increase mutation rate
  12. 12.  Some cancer genes affect cellular differentiation
  13. 13.  Animation: Cancer and cell fate in the intestinal epithelium
  14. 14.  Identifying cancer genes gives insights into treatment strategies
  15. 15.  Q&A: Can the mechanisms that cause mutations be targeted?
  16. 16.  Q&A: Is differentiation required for programmed cell death?
  17. 17.  Q&A: How are healthy cells protected from targeted therapy?
  18. 18.  Classifying lung cancer by cell types or by gene mutations
  19. 19.  Mutations in EGFR signaling pathway genes cause cancer
  20. 20.  EGFR inhibitor drug is highly effective in clinical trials
  21. 21.  Presence of multiple mutations affects how well a drug works
  22. 22.  BRAF kinase mutations cause different types of cancers
  23. 23.  Differences in tissues' signaling pathways affect treatment
  24. 24.  Knowing which genes are mutated and in which cell type
  25. 25.  Research finds a drug against an "undruggable" KRAS protein
  26. 26.  Using the immune system to recognize mutant proteins in cancer
  27. 27.  Cancer cells use immune checkpoints to evade the immune system
  28. 28.  Inhibitors of immune checkpoint molecules as cancer therapy drugs
  29. 29.  Cancer is becoming more treatable because we understand it better
  30. 30.  Q&A: Can immune system drugs replace bone marrow transplants?
  31. 31.  Q&A: How do clinical trials affect patients not in the clinical trials?
  32. 32.  Q&A: Do mutations occur more often in stem cells than other cells?
  33. 33.  Q&A: In immunotherapy, how do T-cells know when to stop?
  34. 34.  Credits


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