Bones, Stones, and Genes: The Origin of Modern Humans

Lecture 2 – Genetics of Human Origins and Adaptation

by Sarah A. Tishkoff, PhD

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  1.  1.  Start of Lecture 2
  2.  2.  Profile of Dr. Sarah Tishkoff
  3.  3.  The human genome and how we differ from others genetically
  4.  4.  What is our place in the tree of life?
  5.  5.  Genetic variation is greater among apes than among humans
  6.  6.  Fossil and genetic evidence inform us about human history
  7.  7.  Nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
  8.  8.  Tracing lineages by mtDNA to Mitochondrial Eve
  9.  9.  Using genetic variation to reconstruct lineage history
  10. 10.  The evidence for African origin of all modern humans
  11. 11.  Human dispersal out of Africa and the founder effect
  12. 12.  Other species of Homo left Africa earlier than Homo sapiens
  13. 13.  Ancient mtDNA reveals human–Neanderthal–Denisova phylogeny
  14. 14.  Comparison of human and Neanderthal genomes
  15. 15.  Q&A: How can different species admix?
  16. 16.  Q&A: Why do ape species show more genetic diversity than humans?
  17. 17.  Q&A: Can you speculate on the future of human evolution?
  18. 18.  Types of genetic variability in nuclear DNA
  19. 19.  Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly variable genetic markers
  20. 20.  Using STRs and other markers to study human genetic variation
  21. 21.  African linguistic families and cultures
  22. 22.  Challenges and ethics of human genetic studies in Africa
  23. 23.  Human genetic diversity is greatest in Africa
  24. 24.  Individuals in the same region are more genetically similar
  25. 25.  Different populations show characteristics of genetic admixture
  26. 26.  Genetic diversity in Africa reveals admixture patterns
  27. 27.  Lactase persistence as an example of human adaptation
  28. 28.  Global distribution of lactose tolerance
  29. 29.  A simple test for lactase persistence
  30. 30.  The genetic basis of lactase persistence in Europe and Africa
  31. 31.  The genetic footprint of recent natural selection
  32. 32.  Lactase persistence: An example of gene-culture coevolution
  33. 33.  Other examples of natural selection in humans
  34. 34.  Q&A: Why is lactose intolerance so low in my community?
  35. 35.  Q&A: How does gene expression affect the lactose intolerance trait?


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