Exploring Biodiversity: The Search for New Medicines

Lecture 3 – Biodiversity at a Snail's Pace

by Baldomero M. Olivera, PhD

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  1.  1.  Start of Lecture 3
  2.  2.  Welcome by HHMI Program Director Dr. Dennis Liu
  3.  3.  Profile of Dr. Baldomero Olivera
  4.  4.  Why are there so many venom components?
  5.  5.  Video: Conus striatus strikes a fish
  6.  6.  Venom components disable different targets
  7.  7.  Each toxin blocks a different synaptic event
  8.  8.  Animation: Motor cabal toxins block motor neuron synapses
  9.  9.  Snails discovered multiple drug therapy
  10. 10.  The motor cabal is like a poison blow-dart
  11. 11.  Motor cabal takes 20-30 seconds to paralyze
  12. 12.  Video: A Taser causes rigid paralysis
  13. 13.  The snail's lightning-strike cabal
  14. 14.  Animation: Lightning-strike cabal acts like a Taser
  15. 15.  Video: Conus bullatus "lightning strike"
  16. 16.  Multiple venom components provide speed and safety factor
  17. 17.  Venom is also used for defense and competition
  18. 18.  Conus geographus stings a man in defense
  19. 19.  Venom composition and a snail's complex environment
  20. 20.  Q&A: How is Prialt administered?
  21. 21.  Q&A: What effects do other conotoxins have on humans?
  22. 22.  Q&A: What effects do the non-predation peptides have?
  23. 23.  Fish hunters not limited to hook-and-line strategy
  24. 24.  Video: Conus tulipa hunts fish by net
  25. 25.  Net hunters use nirvana cabal toxins
  26. 26.  Nirvana cabal toxins may yield drugs to treat epilepsy
  27. 27.  3D structure of toxin peptides
  28. 28.  Cysteine cross-links form peptide scaffolds
  29. 29.  Toxins in a superfamily with similar shapes but different functions
  30. 30.  Hypermutation in non-cysteine peptide sequences
  31. 31.  Convergent evolution between toxin superfamilies
  32. 32.  Molecular basis for venom divergence
  33. 33.  Turrids are the most numerous venomous snails
  34. 34.  Phylogeny of Turrids
  35. 35.  Video: Deep nets to harvest Turrids
  36. 36.  Generous biodiversity in a single net
  37. 37.  Turrid venom is hugely diverse
  38. 38.  Q&A: What about toxins that interfere with clotting?
  39. 39.  Q&A: When do cone snails' prey actually die?
  40. 40.  Closing by HHMI Program Director Dr. Dennis Liu


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