Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory

Lecture 1 – Mapping Memory in the Brain

by Eric R. Kandel, MD

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  1.  1.  Start of Lecture 1
  2.  2.  Welcome by HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech
  3.  3.  Profile of Dr. Eric Kandel
  4.  4.  The brain: Learning and memory
  5.  5.  The devastation of learning and memory disorders
  6.  6.  Video: Clive Wearing, a man without memory
  7.  7.  The systems problem of memory: Where is memory stored?
  8.  8.  Gall's insights into the brain
  9.  9.  An overview of brain structure
  10. 10.  Gall localizes brain functions based on skull shape
  11. 11.  Demonstration: Phrenology
  12. 12.  Broca challenges Gall's theory by studying brain function
  13. 13.  Broca studies aphasia to localize language in the brain
  14. 14.  Localizing brain areas that control motor functions
  15. 15.  Wernicke: Complex brain functions are not in a single area
  16. 16.  Location of language areas suggests a model of language
  17. 17.  Wernicke's language model predicts a conduction aphasia
  18. 18.  Video: A patient with conduction aphasia
  19. 19.  Left brain and right brain language functions
  20. 20.  MRI identifies brain areas for recognizing faces
  21. 21.  Q&A: Do basic brain functions reside deeper in the brain?
  22. 22.  Q&A: Is there a correlation between brain size and intelligence?
  23. 23.  Q&A: How is the brain organized in bilingual people?
  24. 24.  Lashley's experiments cast doubt on memory localization
  25. 25.  Penfield finds memories are localized in human brains
  26. 26.  The patient H.M. loses memory after brain surgery
  27. 27.  Brenda Milner finds H.M. retains some memory functions
  28. 28.  H.M. unable to convert short-term to long-term memory
  29. 29.  Mirror tracing: H.M. can unconsciously learn new tasks
  30. 30.  Student results of mirror tracing activity
  31. 31.  Different mechanisms for explicit vs. implicit memory
  32. 32.  Video: Clive Wearing plays piano despite memory deficit
  33. 33.  Summary
  34. 34.  Q&A: Did H.M. show any capability of emotional response?
  35. 35.  Q&A: Are stem cells involved in implicit memory storage?
  36. 36.  Q&A: Can brains compensate for a lesion?
  37. 37.  Closing remarks by HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech


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