AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic

Lecture 4 – Vaccines and HIV Evolution

by Bruce D. Walker, MD

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  1.  1.  Start of Lecture 4
  2.  2.  Welcome by HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech
  3.  3.  Dr. Bruce Walker in South Africa
  4.  4.  HIV drugs have revolutionized treatment
  5.  5.  Hopes for an HIV vaccine have existed for years
  6.  6.  How vaccines work
  7.  7.  Antibody-inducing vaccines provide immunity
  8.  8.  Ways of creating a vaccine
  9.  9.  Vaccination primes the immune system for future exposure
  10. 10.  Past successes with vaccination
  11. 11.  Video: HIV's origin in Africa
  12. 12.  How HIV was first transmitted to humans
  13. 13.  HIV mutation leads to staggering diversity in HIV genome
  14. 14.  Subtype variation complicates finding a universal vaccine
  15. 15.  HIV mutation means antibodies are always a step behind
  16. 16.  Problems with targeting HIV's envelope proteins
  17. 17.  Is using cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) an option?
  18. 18.  HIV variability disrupts antigen presentation to CTLs
  19. 19.  Additional reasons for failure of CTLs to respond
  20. 20.  CTLs can be induced to work by functioning helper T cells
  21. 21.  Summary
  22. 22.  Q&A: If HIV is changing, how can it still attach to receptors?
  23. 23.  Q&A: Why are there locations that have more HIV variation?
  24. 24.  Vaccines to reduce viral load could reduce the epidemic
  25. 25.  Disappointing results in the first HIV vaccine tests
  26. 26.  Possible reason for failure of the HIV vaccine
  27. 27.  Studying vaccine targets in Durban, South Africa
  28. 28.  Building research facilities in South Africa
  29. 29.  A responsibility to treat research subjects
  30. 30.  Antibody response and relationship to viral load
  31. 31.  Can HIV infection be controlled?
  32. 32.  Video: Bob Massie: Infected but AIDS free
  33. 33.  Massie's immune system controls the infection properly
  34. 34.  Significance of elite controllers
  35. 35.  Scanning genomes to find a genetic basis for elite controllers
  36. 36.  Genome scanning and big dogs vs. little dogs
  37. 37.  Using genome scans on elite controllers
  38. 38.  Summary
  39. 39.  Tuberculosis and AIDS
  40. 40.  Q&A: Could CCR5 drugs be given to noninfected people?
  41. 41.  Q&A: Is HIV infection similar to being a TB carrier?
  42. 42.  Dr. Thomas Cech announces speakers for next Holiday Lectures


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