AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic

Lecture 3 – Drugs and HIV Evolution

by Bisola O. Ojikutu, MD, M.P.H.

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  1.  1.  Start of Lecture 3
  2.  2.  Welcome by Grants Program Director Dr. Dennis Liu
  3.  3.  Dr. Bisola Ojikutu in South Africa
  4.  4.  Antiretroviral therapy can halt progression to AIDS
  5.  5.  Video: Benefits of antiretroviral therapy
  6.  6.  AZT: The first antiretroviral used to fight HIV
  7.  7.  AZT's mechanism of action
  8.  8.  Animation: AZT blocks reverse transcriptase
  9.  9.  Drug development and approval process
  10. 10.  AZT's initial clinical results were encouraging
  11. 11.  HIV evolves to become resistant to a drug
  12. 12.  Treating with multiple drugs to battle resistance
  13. 13.  Animation: Protease inhibitor
  14. 14.  Triple-drug therapy sustains low viral levels
  15. 15.  Triple-drug therapy and drop in U.S. AIDS deaths
  16. 16.  Problems with triple-drug therapies and a search for new drugs
  17. 17.  Video: Steve Crohn: HIV free despite exposure
  18. 18.  People who have mutant CCR5 coreceptors avoid infection
  19. 19.  New class of drugs that inhibits CCR5
  20. 20.  Q&A: Is the CCR5 inhibitor drug working well?
  21. 21.  Q&A: Does AZT also affect cellular replication?
  22. 22.  Q&A: Do age groups differ in HIV drug resistance?
  23. 23.  Q&A: How common is the CCR5 mutation?
  24. 24.  Q&A: Do the drugs have side effects?
  25. 25.  Q&A: do CCR5 mutations have an effect on people
  26. 26.  Q&A: Is caution needed with ART due to HIV mutations?
  27. 27.  Q&A: Can you take CCR5 inhibitor without other drugs?
  28. 28.  Q&A: Can using different classes of drugs lower mutation rate?
  29. 29.  Video: Adhering to an antiretroviral regimen
  30. 30.  Why adherence to HIV medications is crucial
  31. 31.  Relationship of adherence to virologic failure
  32. 32.  Demo: Student adherence activity
  33. 33.  Demo: Student adherence results
  34. 34.  Demo: Students discuss their adherence issues
  35. 35.  HIV prevalence growing in certain U.S. populations
  36. 36.  Statistics on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic
  37. 37.  South African HIV/AIDS statistics
  38. 38.  Barriers to treatment in South Africa
  39. 39.  AIDS orphans and the "gogo"
  40. 40.  Umndeni "Family" Care Program
  41. 41.  Mother-to-child HIV transmission is preventable
  42. 42.  Q&A: How long does a newborn have to take ARVs?
  43. 43.  Q&A: Does a C-section remove the need for perinatal ARVs?
  44. 44.  Q&A: Can helper T cells be artificially enhanced?
  45. 45.  Q&A: Can CCR5 inhibitors prevent initial infection?
  46. 46.  Q&A: Can CCR5 inhibitors be made into a vaccine?
  47. 47.  Q&A: Why were the initial U.S. cases in homosexual men?
  48. 48.  Q&A: What are governmental barriers to treatment?
  49. 49.  Q&A: What preventive measures do health-care workers take?
  50. 50.  Q&A: Is there hesitation in being tested?
  51. 51.  Q&A: What has U.N. done about mother-to-child transmission?
  52. 52.  Q&A: How does a child avoid infection from the mother?
  53. 53.  Q&A: Why are more women being infected in the U.S.?
  54. 54.  Closing remarks by HHMI Program Director Dr. Dennis Liu


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