AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic

Lecture 1 – From Outbreak to Epidemic

by Bisola O. Ojikutu, MD, M.P.H.

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  1.  1.  Start of Lecture 1
  2.  2.  Welcome by HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech
  3.  3.  Profile of Dr. Bisola Ojikutu
  4.  4.  1980 and the first signs of the coming epidemic
  5.  5.  Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) found in affected patients
  6.  6.  PCP outbreaks and the CDC
  7.  7.  Video: First AIDS patients
  8.  8.  Similar infections in the first set of patients
  9.  9.  Opportunistic infection: Cytomegalovirus
  10. 10.  Opportunistic infection: Candidiasis
  11. 11.  Opportunistic infection: Kaposi's sarcoma
  12. 12.  Opportunistic infection: Herpesvirus
  13. 13.  AIDS defined
  14. 14.  Cells of the immune system
  15. 15.  Antigen-presenting cells and helper T cells
  16. 16.  Early epidemic signs in the U.S.
  17. 17.  Tracing individuals to determine the spread of the epidemic
  18. 18.  More pieces of the AIDS puzzle
  19. 19.  Q&A: Is Kaposi's sarcoma a deadly cancer?
  20. 20.  Q&A: Are opportunistic infections worse in AIDS patients?
  21. 21.  AIDS timeline
  22. 22.  Animation: U.S. AIDS epidemic
  23. 23.  Early groups affected by AIDS
  24. 24.  Early theories on what caused AIDS
  25. 25.  Gallo and Montagnier discover the AIDS virus
  26. 26.  Demo: Rapid AIDS virus test
  27. 27.  Isolating the AIDS virus from lymph cells
  28. 28.  HIV: The retrovirus that causes AIDS
  29. 29.  Antibodies to HIV found in infected people
  30. 30.  Development of an antibody-based test for HIV
  31. 31.  How the ELISA test works
  32. 32.  Detecting HIV samples preserved before the outbreak
  33. 33.  HIV infection precedes AIDS symptoms by years
  34. 34.  Modes of HIV transmission
  35. 35.  U.S. AIDS infection estimates from mid-1980s
  36. 36.  Global HIV/AIDS estimates
  37. 37.  Q&A: What happens after an HIV-positive test result?
  38. 38.  Q&A: How did the infection get so widespread?
  39. 39.  Q&A: What is the time from HIV infection to developing AIDS?
  40. 40.  Q&A: Does the HIV test detect HIV throughout infection?
  41. 41.  Q&A: How was HIV transmitted in Haitian cases?
  42. 42.  Q&A: Are opportunistic infections getting worse over time?
  43. 43.  Results of rapid HIV test
  44. 44.  Zinhle Thabethe and her HIV-positive status
  45. 45.  Closing remarks by HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech


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